MicroPlex Library Preparation Kit v2 (12 indexes)

Catalog Number
12 rxns

Specifically optimized for ChIP-seq

The MicroPlex Library Preparation™ kit is the only kit on the market which is validated for ChIP-seq and which allows the preparation of indexed libraries from just picogram inputs. In combination with the True MicroChIP kit, it allows for performing ChIP-seq on as few as 10,000 cells. Less input, fewer steps, fewer supplies, faster time to results! 

The MicroPlex v2 kit (Cat. No. C05010012) contains all necessary reagents including single indexes for multiplexing up to 12 samples using single barcoding. For higher multiplexing (using dual indexes) check MicroPlex Library Preparation Kits v3.


We used the MicroPlex version 2 kit to generate libraries using ChIP DNA for several transcription factors and compared the results to a standard library generation protocol starting from 5ng of ChIP DNA. Even when we reduced the starting amount of DNA by 10-fold, the MicroPlex Kit produced the same high yields and quality of the libraries. As expected, the number of duplicate reads increased but 15 to 20 million unique reads were sufficient to achieve excellent enrichment data. We found that no information was lost, and the MicroPlex Kit helped produce data that was consistent with the standard protocol despite the lower input. On top of this, the MicroPlex Kit was extremely user-friendly and saved us time. The MicroPlex version 2 kit will make challenging ChIP-seq experiments that rely on very limited amount of starting material much easier with robust results.

Katia Basso, PhD, Assistant Professor, Columbia University, New York
  • Characteristics
    • 1 tube, 2 hours, 3 steps protocol
    • Input: 50 pg – 50 ng
    • Reduce potential bias - few PCR amplification cycles needed
    • High sensitivity ChIP-seq - low PCR duplication rate
    • Great multiplexing flexibility with 12 barcodes (8 nt) included
    • Validated with the IP-Star® Automated Platform

    How it works

    Microplex workflow - protocol with single indexes
    An input of 50 pg to 50 ng of fragmented dsDNA is converted into sequencing-ready libraries for Illumina® NGS platforms using a fast and simple 3-step protocol

    • Read more about MicroPlex workflow

      Step 1. Template Preparation provides efficient repair of the fragmented double-stranded DNA input.

      In this step, the DNA is repaired and yields molecules with blunt ends.

      Step 2. Library Synthesis. enables ligation of MicroPlex patented stem- loop adapters.

      In the next step, stem-loop adaptors with blocked 5’ ends are ligated with high efficiency to the 5’ end of the genomic DNA, leaving a nick at the 3’ end. The adaptors cannot ligate to each other and do not have single- strand tails, both of which contribute to non-specific background found with many other NGS preparations.

      Step 3. Library Amplification enables extension of the template, cleavage of the stem-loop adaptors, and amplification of the library. Illumina- compatible indexes are also introduced using a high-fidelity, highly- processive, low-bias DNA polymerase.

      In the final step, the 3’ ends of the genomic DNA are extended to complete library synthesis and Illumina-compatible indexes are added through a high-fidelity amplification. Any remaining free adaptors are destroyed. Hands-on time and the risk of contamination are minimized by using a single tube and eliminating intermediate purifications.

      Obtained libraries are purified, quantified and sized. The libraries pooling can be performed as well before sequencing.

    Reliable detection of enrichments in ChIP-seq

    Reliable detection of enrichments in ChIP-seq figure 1

    Figure A. ChIP has been peformed with H3K4me3 antibody, amplification of 17 pg of DNA ChIP'd from 10.000 cells and amplification of 35 pg of DNA ChIP'd from 100.000 cells (control experiment). The IP'd DNA was amplified and transformed into a sequencing-ready preparation for the Illumina plateform with the MicroPlex Library Preparation kit. The library was then analysed on an Illumina® Genome Analyzer. Cluster generation and sequencing were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions.

    Reliable detection of enrichments in ChIP-seq figure 2

    Figure B. We observed a perfect match between the top 40% of True MicroChIP peaks and the reference dataset. Based on the NIH Encode project criterion, ChIP-seq results are considered reproducible between an original and reproduced dataset if the top 40% of peaks have at least an 80% overlap ratio with the compared dataset.

  •  Testimonials

    We sheared the DNA on the Diagenode One and used the MicroPlex Library Preparation v2 Kit to create DNA libraries for whole genome sequencing of four plant species for which there is no reference genome available. Previous attempts with a commercial Tn5-transposase based method gave unsatisfactory results. However, the Diagenode MicroPlex kit was quicker, easier, and gave the expected profile of fragment sizes. In just 30 seconds of sonication, we obtained a fragment distribution centered at 270 bp. The library construction took only 2 hours with this kit. The library was sequenced in a NexSeq 550 in High-Output mode, giving 85% based with>Q30.

    PhD. Ricardo Verdugo, Assistant Professor, University of Chile

    I work with Diagenode’s Plant ChIP-seq kit and shear the DNA on the Bioruptor Pico for the last year and I have to say that these two products saved my PhD project! Some time ago, our well-established ChIP protocol suddenly stopped to work and after long time of figuring out the reason, we invested into Bioruptor Pico. I am very satisfied from the way it works, plus it’s super quiet! Combining the sonicator with the Plant ChIP-seq kit we finally got things working. I have also decided to try the Microplex Library Prep kit, which is amazing. I have been working with other kits and I find this one efficient and very easy to use. Recently, I have tested one of the epigenetics antibody (H3K4me3) and it works very well on the plant tissue, together with the ChIP-seq kit and Bioruptor.

    Thanks Diagenode for saving my PhD!

    Kamila Kwasniewska, Plant Developmental Genetics, Smurfit Institute, Trinity College, Dublin

    There are so many ChIP-related products on the market, but I feel so lucky that I have been using the ones from Diagenode since I started my CHIP-seq project. I have used their iDeal CHIP-seq Kit for Transcription Factors and MicroPlex Library Prep Kit v2. Both of them are fantastic and very reproducible. With the very-well written protocols, you will just be home and dry. Particularly, I want to thank the technical support, who is very patient, knowledgeable and extremely helpful. I would definitely recommend my colleagues to use the CHIP products from Diagenode.

    Dr Kaiyu Lei, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery & Cancer, Imperial College London

    I am working with the True MicroChIP & Microplex Library Preparation Kits and several histone modification antibodies like H3K27ac, H3K4me3, H3K36me3, and H3K27me3. I got always very good and reproducible results for my ChIP-seq experiments.

    Andrea Thiesen, ZMB, Developmental Biology, Prof. Dr. Andrea Vortkamp´s lab, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany

    The Diagenode MicroPlex kit is the quickest and most efficient way to make sequencing libraries, especially from samples with very low inputs. We regularly start with picogram amounts of ChIP material and produce excellent quality libraries that would be impossible to make using normal methods. Sequencing libraries made from the MicroPlex kit give us excellent results even in large genomes. The kit performs very well, and we will use the kit in the future for studies with low cell numbers or starting material.

    Dr. Morgan Sammons, Lab of Dr. Shelley Berger, University of Pennsylvania
  •  Documents
    MicroPlex Library Preparation kit v2 MANUAL
    MicroPlex v2 builds on the innovative MicroPlex chemistry to generate DNA libraries with ex...
    True MicroChIP and MicroPlex kits APPLICATION NOTE
    From minuscule amounts to magnificent results: reliable ChIP-seq data from 10,000 cells with the ...
    ChIP kit results with True MicroChIP kit POSTER
    Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) has become the g...
  •  Safety sheets
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  •  Publications

    How to properly cite this product in your work

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    TCDD induces multigenerational alterations in the expression ofmicroRNA in the thymus through epigenetic modifications
    Singh Narendra P et al.
    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AhR ligand, is an environmental contaminant that is known for mediating toxicity across generations. However, whether TCDD can induce multigenerational changes in the expression of miRNAs (miRs) has not been previously studied. In the current study, we investigate...

    The histone acetyltransferase KAT6A is recruited to unmethylatedCpG islands via a DNA binding winged helix domain.
    Weber L.M. et al.
    The lysine acetyltransferase KAT6A (MOZ, MYST3) belongs to the MYST family of chromatin regulators, facilitating histone acetylation. Dysregulation of KAT6A has been implicated in developmental syndromes and the onset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previous work suggests that KAT6A is recruited to its genomic targ...

    Polyglutamine-expanded ATXN7 alters a specific epigenetic signatureunderlying photoreceptor identity gene expression in SCA7 mouseretinopathy.
    Niewiadomska-Cimicka A.et al.
    BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the cerebellum and retina. SCA7 is caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the ATXN7 protein, a subunit of the transcriptional coactivator SAGA that acetylates histone H3 to deposit narrow H3K9ac mark at DNA regula...

    Identification of genomic binding sites and direct target genes for thetranscription factor DDIT3/CHOP.
    Osman A. et al.
    DDIT3 is a tightly regulated basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor and key regulator in cellular stress responses. It is involved in a variety of pathological conditions and may cause cell cycle block and apoptosis. It is also implicated in differentiation of some specialized cell types and as an oncogene...

    Cryptococcal Hsf3 controls intramitochondrial ROS homeostasis byregulating the respiratory process.
    Gao X.et al.
    Mitochondrial quality control prevents accumulation of intramitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mtROS), thereby protecting cells against DNA damage, genome instability, and programmed cell death. However, underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, particularly in fungal species. Here, we show that...

    Dominant role of DNA methylation over H3K9me3 for IAP silencingin endoderm.
    Wang Z. et al.
    Silencing of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) is largely mediated by repressive chromatin modifications H3K9me3 and DNA methylation. On ERVs, these modifications are mainly deposited by the histone methyltransferase Setdb1 and by the maintenance DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. Knock-out of either Setdb1 or Dnmt1 leads to...

    HDAC1 and PRC2 mediate combinatorial control in SPI1/PU.1-dependentgene repression in murine erythroleukaemia.
    Gregoricchio S. et al.
    Although originally described as transcriptional activator, SPI1/PU.1, a major player in haematopoiesis whose alterations are associated with haematological malignancies, has the ability to repress transcription. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying gene repression in the erythroid lineage, in which SPI1 ...

    Dual role of histone variant H3.3B in spermatogenesis: positiveregulation of piRNA transcription and implication in X-chromosomeinactivation.
    Fontaine E. et al.
    The histone variant H3.3 is encoded by two distinct genes, H3f3a and H3f3b, exhibiting identical amino-acid sequence. H3.3 is required for spermatogenesis, but the molecular mechanism of its spermatogenic function remains obscure. Here, we have studied the role of each one of H3.3A and H3.3B proteins in spermatogene...

    TBX2 acts as a potent transcriptional silencer of tumour suppressor genesthrough interaction with the CoREST complex to sustain theproliferation of breast cancers.
    McIntyre A.J. et al.
    Chromosome 17q23 amplification occurs in 20\% of primary breast tumours and is associated with poor outcome. The TBX2 gene is located on 17q23 and is often over-expressed in this breast tumour subset. TBX2 is an anti-senescence gene, promoting cell growth and survival through repression of Tumour Suppressor Genes (T...

    Epigenetic Mechanisms Mediating Cell State Transitions in Chondrocytes
    Wuelling M. et al.
    Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in regulating cell lineage differentiation, but the epigenetic mechanisms guiding specific differentiation steps within a cell lineage have rarely been investigated. To decipher such mechanisms, we used the defined transition from proliferating (PC) into hypertrophic chon...

    The CpG Island-Binding Protein SAMD1 Contributes to anUnfavorable Gene Signature in HepG2 Hepatocellular CarcinomaCells.
    Simon C. et al.
    The unmethylated CpG island-binding protein SAMD1 is upregulated in many human cancer types, but its cancer-related role has not yet been investigated. Here, we used the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 as a cancer model and investigated the cellular and transcriptional roles of SAMD1 using ChIP-Seq and RNA-...

    Local euchromatin enrichment in lamina-associated domains anticipatestheir repositioning in the adipogenic lineage.
    Madsen-Østerbye J. et al.
    BACKGROUND: Interactions of chromatin with the nuclear lamina via lamina-associated domains (LADs) confer structural stability to the genome. The dynamics of positioning of LADs during differentiation, and how LADs impinge on developmental gene expression, remains, however, elusive. RESULTS: We examined changes in t...

    CREBBP/EP300 acetyltransferase inhibition disrupts FOXA1-bound enhancers to inhibit the proliferation of ER+ breast cancer cells.
    Bommi-Reddy A. et al.
    Therapeutic targeting of the estrogen receptor (ER) is a clinically validated approach for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (ER+ BC), but sustained response is limited by acquired resistance. Targeting the transcriptional coactivators required for estrogen receptor activity represents an alternative approach...

    NuA4 and H2A.Z control environmental responses and autotrophicgrowth in Arabidopsis
    Bieluszewski T. et al.
    Nucleosomal acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) is an essential transcriptional coactivator in eukaryotes, but remains poorly characterized in plants. Here, we describe Arabidopsis homologs of the NuA4 scaffold proteins Enhancer of Polycomb-Like 1 (AtEPL1) and Esa1-Associated Factor 1 (AtEAF1). Loss of AtEAF1 results in ...

    Epromoters function as a hub to recruit key transcription factorsrequired for the inflammatory response
    Santiago-Algarra D. et al.
    Gene expression is controlled by the involvement of gene-proximal (promoters) and distal (enhancers) regulatory elements. Our previous results demonstrated that a subset of gene promoters, termed Epromoters, work as bona fide enhancers and regulate distal gene expression. Here, we hypothesized that Epromoters play a...

    Decreased PRC2 activity supports the survival of basal-like breastcancer cells to cytotoxic treatments
    Mieczkowska IK et al.
    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer occurring in women but also rarely develops in men. Recent advances in early diagnosis and development of targeted therapies have greatly improved the survival rate of BC patients. However, the basal-like BC subtype (BLBC), largely overlapping with the triple-negative BC ...

    Ago1 controls myogenic differentiation by regulating eRNA-mediatedCBP-guided epigenome reprogramming.
    Fallatah Bodor et al.
    The role of chromatin-associated RNAi components in the nucleus of mammalian cells and in particular in the context of developmental programs remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the function of nuclear Argonaute 1 (Ago1) in gene expression regulation during skeletal muscle differentiation. We show that Ag...

    Alveolar macrophages from persons living with HIV show impairedepigenetic response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    Correa-Macedo Wilian et al.
    Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). HIV-associated TB is often the result of recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) followed by rapid progression to disease. Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the first cells of the innate immune system that engage Mtb, but how HIV a...

    INTS11 regulates hematopoiesis by promoting PRC2 function.
    Zhang Peng et al.
    INTS11, the catalytic subunit of the Integrator (INT) complex, is crucial for the biogenesis of small nuclear RNAs and enhancer RNAs. However, the role of INTS11 in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) biology is unknown. Here, we report that INTS11 is required for normal hematopoiesis and hematopoietic-spe...

    The related coactivator complexes SAGA and ATAC control embryonicstem cell self-renewal through acetyltransferase-independent mechanisms
    Fischer Veronique et al.
    SUMMARY SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase) and ATAC (Ada-two-A-containing) are two related coactivator complexes, sharing the same histone acetyltransferase (HAT) subunit. The HAT activities of SAGA and ATAC are required for metazoan development, but the role of these complexes in RNA polymerase II transcription ...

    Altered Chromatin States Drive Cryptic Transcription in AgingMammalian Stem Cells.
    McCauley Brenna S et al.
    A repressive chromatin state featuring trimethylated lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me3) and DNA methylation suppresses cryptic transcription in embryonic stem cells. Cryptic transcription is elevated with age in yeast and nematodes, and reducing it extends yeast lifespan, though whether this occurs in mammals is unk...

    Metabolically controlled histone H4K5 acylation/acetylation ratiodrives BRD4 genomic distribution.
    Gao M. et al.
    In addition to acetylation, histones are modified by a series of competing longer-chain acylations. Most of these acylation marks are enriched and co-exist with acetylation on active gene regulatory elements. Their seemingly redundant functions hinder our understanding of histone acylations' specific roles. Here, by...

    Heterogeneity of neurons reprogrammed from spinal cord astrocytes by theproneural factors Ascl1 and Neurogenin2
    Kempf J. et al.
    Summary Astrocytes are a viable source for generating new neurons via direct conversion. However, little is known about the neurogenic cascades triggered in astrocytes from different regions of the CNS. Here, we examine the transcriptome induced by the proneural factors Ascl1 and Neurog2 in spinal cord-derived astro...

    Lasp1 regulates adherens junction dynamics and fibroblast transformationin destructive arthritis
    Beckmann D. et al.
    The LIM and SH3 domain protein 1 (Lasp1) was originally cloned from metastatic breast cancer and characterised as an adaptor molecule associated with tumourigenesis and cancer cell invasion. However, the regulation of Lasp1 and its function in the aggressive transformation of cells is unclear. Here we use integrativ...

    The SAM domain-containing protein 1 (SAMD1) acts as a repressivechromatin regulator at unmethylated CpG islands
    Stielow B. et al.
    CpG islands (CGIs) are key regulatory DNA elements at most promoters, but how they influence the chromatin status and transcription remains elusive. Here, we identify and characterize SAMD1 (SAM domain-containing protein 1) as an unmethylated CGI-binding protein. SAMD1 has an atypical winged-helix domain that direct...

    Waves of sumoylation support transcription dynamics during adipocytedifferentiation
    Zhao, X. et al.
    Tight control of gene expression networks required for adipose tissue formation and plasticity is essential for adaptation to energy needs and environmental cues. However, little is known about the mechanisms that orchestrate the dramatic transcriptional changes leading to adipocyte differentiation. We investigated ...

    Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 and KRYPTONITE regulate pathogen-inducedprogrammed cell death in Arabidopsis.
    Dvořák Tomaštíková E. et al.
    The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is well-known for its role in controlling developmental transitions by suppressing the premature expression of key developmental regulators. Previous work revealed that PRC2 also controls the onset of senescence, a form of developmental programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. ...

    An integrated multi-omics analysis identifies prognostic molecularsubtypes of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
    Lindskrog Sia Viborg et al.
    The molecular landscape in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is characterized by large biological heterogeneity with variable clinical outcomes. Here, we perform an integrative multi-omics analysis of patients diagnosed with NMIBC (n = 834). Transcriptomic analysis identifies four classes (1, ...

    Loss of SETD1B results in the redistribution of genomic H3K4me3 in theoocyte
    Hanna, C. W. et al.
    Histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is an epigenetic mark found at gene promoters and CpG islands. H3K4me3 is essential for mammalian development, yet mechanisms underlying its genomic targeting are poorly understood. H3K4me3 methyltransferases SETD1B and MLL2 are essential for oogenesis. We investigated cha...

    VPRBP functions downstream of the androgen receptor and OGT to restrict p53 activation in prostate cancer
    Poulose N. et al.
    Androgen receptor (AR) is a major driver of prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that catalyses the covalent addition of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to serine and threonine residues of proteins, is often up-regulated in PCa with its expression correlated w...

    JAZF1, A Novel p400/TIP60/NuA4 Complex Member, Regulates H2A.ZAcetylation at Regulatory Regions.
    Procida, Tara and Friedrich, Tobias and Jack, Antonia P M and Peritore,Martina and Bönisch, Clemens and Eberl, H Christian and Daus, Nadine andKletenkov, Konstantin and Nist, Andrea and Stiewe, Thorsten and Borggrefe,Tilman and Mann, Matthias and Bartk
    Histone variants differ in amino acid sequence, expression timing and genomic localization sites from canonical histones and convey unique functions to eukaryotic cells. Their tightly controlled spatial and temporal deposition into specific chromatin regions is accomplished by dedicated chaperone and/or remodeling c...

    Epigenetic impairment and blunted transcriptional response to Mycobacteriumtuberculosis of alveolar macrophages from persons living with HIV
    Correa-Macedo, W. et al.
    Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB). HIV-associated TB is often the result of recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) followed by rapid progression to disease. Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the first cells of the innate immune system that engage Mtb, but how HIV a...

    Histone demethylase JMJD2B/KDM4B regulates transcriptional program viadistinctive epigenetic targets and protein interactors for the maintenanceof trophoblast stem cells.
    Mak, Kylie Hin-Man et al.
    Trophoblast stem cell (TSC) is crucial to the formation of placenta in mammals. Histone demethylase JMJD2 (also known as KDM4) family proteins have been previously shown to support self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. However, their roles in the context of the trophoblast lineage remain unclear. Here, we ...

    Histone H1 loss drives lymphoma by disrupting 3D chromatin architecture.
    Yusufova, Nevin and Kloetgen, Andreas and Teater, Matt and Osunsade,Adewola and Camarillo, Jeannie M and Chin, Christopher R and Doane, AshleyS and Venters, Bryan J and Portillo-Ledesma, Stephanie and Conway, Josephand Phillip, Jude M and Elemento, Oli
    Linker histone H1 proteins bind to nucleosomes and facilitate chromatin compaction, although their biological functions are poorly understood. Mutations in the genes that encode H1 isoforms B-E (H1B, H1C, H1D and H1E; also known as H1-5, H1-2, H1-3 and H1-4, respectively) are highly recurrent in B cell lymphoma...

    Multi-omic comparison of Alzheimer's variants in human ESC-derivedmicroglia reveals convergence at APOE.
    Liu, Tongfei and Zhu, Bing and Liu, Yan and Zhang, Xiaoming and Yin, Junand Li, Xiaoguang and Jiang, LuLin and Hodges, Andrew P and Rosenthal, SaraBrin and Zhou, Lisa and Yancey, Joel and McQuade, Amanda and Blurton-Jones,Mathew and Tanzi, Rudolph E an
    Variations in many genes linked to sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) show abundant expression in microglia, but relationships among these genes remain largely elusive. Here, we establish isogenic human ESC-derived microglia-like cell lines (hMGLs) harboring AD variants in CD33, INPP5D, SORL1, and TREM2 loci and cura...

    A genetic variant controls interferon-β gene expression in human myeloidcells by preventing C/EBP-β binding on a conserved enhancer.
    Assouvie, Anaïs and Rotival, Maxime and Hamroune, Juliette and Busso,Didier and Romeo, Paul-Henri and Quintana-Murci, Lluis and Rousselet,Germain
    Interferon β (IFN-β) is a cytokine that induces a global antiviral proteome, and regulates the adaptive immune response to infections and tumors. Its effects strongly depend on its level and timing of expression. Therefore, the transcription of its coding gene IFNB1 is strictly controlled. We have previous...

    Increased H3K4me3 methylation and decreased miR-7113-5p expression lead toenhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling in immune cells from PTSD patientsleading to inflammatory phenotype.
    Bam, Marpe and Yang, Xiaoming and Busbee, Brandon P and Aiello, Allison Eand Uddin, Monica and Ginsberg, Jay P and Galea, Sandro and Nagarkatti,Prakash S and Nagarkatti, Mitzi
    BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder accompanied by chronic peripheral inflammation. What triggers inflammation in PTSD is currently unclear. In the present study, we identified potential defects in signaling pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individual...

    Trans- and cis-acting effects of Firre on epigenetic features of theinactive X chromosome.