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An endosiRNA-Based Repression Mechanism Counteracts Transposon Activation during Global DNA Demethylation in Embryonic Stem Cells
Berrens R.V. et al.
Erasure of DNA methylation and repressive chromatin marks in the mammalian germline leads to risk of transcriptional activation of transposable elements (TEs). Here, we used mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to identify an endosiRNA-based mechanism involved in suppression of TE transcription. In ESCs with DNA demeth...
Transcriptome sequencing in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies fusion genes associated with distinct DNA methylation profiles
Marincevic-Zuniga Y. et al.
Structural chromosomal rearrangements that lead to expressed fusion genes are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 134 primary ALL patient samples to comprehensively detect fusion transcripts.
We combined fusion gene detec...
Dynamics of RNA Polymerase II Pausing and Bivalent Histone H3 Methylation during Neuronal Differentiation in Brain Development
Liu J. et al.
During cellular differentiation, genes important for differentiation are expected to be silent in stem/progenitor cells yet can be readily activated. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing and bivalent chromatin marks are two paradigms suited for establishing such a poised state of gene expression; however, their specif...
Multivalent binding of PWWP2A to H2A.Z regulates mitosis and neural crest differentiation
Pünzeler S. et al.
Replacement of canonical histones with specialized histone variants promotes altering of chromatin structure and function. The essential histone variant H2A.Z affects various DNA-based processes via poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we determine the comprehensive interactome of H2A.Z and identify PWWP2A as a novel...
Krox20 hindbrain regulation incorporates multiple modes of cooperation between cis-acting elements
Thierion E. et al.
Developmental genes can harbour multiple transcriptional enhancers that act simultaneously or in succession to achieve robust and precise spatiotemporal expression. However, the mechanisms underlying cooperation between cis-acting elements are poorly documented, notably in vertebrates. The mouse gene Krox20 encodes ...
Ectopic application of the repressive histone modification H3K9me2 establishes post-zygotic reproductive isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana
Jiang H. et al.
Hybrid seed lethality as a consequence of interspecies or interploidy hybridizations is a major mechanism of reproductive isolation in plants. This mechanism is manifested in the endosperm, a dosage-sensitive tissue supporting embryo growth. Deregulated expression of imprinted genes such as ADMETOS (ADM) underpin th...
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-elicited effects on bile acid homeostasis: Alterations in biosynthesis, enterohepatic circulation, and microbial metabolism.
Fader K. et al.
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant which elicits hepatotoxicity through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Male C57BL/6 mice orally gavaged with TCDD (0.01-30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days exhibited bile duct proliferation and perichola...
Platelet function is modified by common sequence variation in megakaryocyte super enhancers
Petersen R. et al.
Linking non-coding genetic variants associated with the risk of diseases or disease-relevant traits to target genes is a crucial step to realize GWAS potential in the introduction of precision medicine. Here we set out to determine the mechanisms underpinning variant association with platelet quantitative traits usi...
CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Reveals That the Intron Is Not Essential for var2csa Gene Activation or Silencing in Plasmodium falciparum
Bryant J.M. et al.
Plasmodium falciparum relies on monoallelic expression of 1 of 60 var virulence genes for antigenic variation and host immune evasion. Each var gene contains a conserved intron which has been implicated in previous studies in both activation and repression of transcription via several epigenetic mechanisms, includin...
RNA Polymerase III Subunit POLR3G Regulates Specific Subsets of PolyA(+) and SmallRNA Transcriptomes and Splicing in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Lund R.J. et al.
POLR3G is expressed at high levels in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and is required for maintenance of stem cell state through mechanisms not known in detail. To explore how POLR3G regulates stem cell state, we carried out deep-sequencing analysis of polyA+ and smallRNA transcriptomes present in hPSCs an...
Epigenetically-driven anatomical diversity of synovial fibroblasts guides joint-specific fibroblast functions
Frank-Bertoncelj M, Trenkmann M, Klein K, Karouzakis E, Rehrauer H, Bratus A, Kolling C, Armaka M, Filer A, Michel BA, Gay RE, Buckley CD, Kollias G, Gay S, Ospelt C
A number of human diseases, such as arthritis and atherosclerosis, include characteristic pathology in specific anatomical locations. Here we show transcriptomic differences in synovial fibroblasts from different joint locations and that HOX gene signatures reflect the joint-specific origins of mouse and human synov...
First landscape of binding to chromosomes for a domesticated mariner transposase in the human genome: diversity of genomic targets of SETMAR isoforms in two colorectal cell lines
Antoine-Lorquin A. et al.
Setmar is a 3-exons gene coding a SET domain fused to a Hsmar1 transposase. Its different transcripts theoretically encode 8 isoforms with SET moieties differently spliced. In vitro, the largest isoform binds specifically to Hsmar1 DNA ends and with no specificity to DNA when it is associated with hPso4. In colon ce...
Crebbp loss cooperates with Bcl2 over-expression to promote lymphoma in mice
Idoia García-Ramírez, Saber Tadros, Inés González-Herrero, Alberto Martín-Lorenzo, Guillermo Rodríguez-Hernández, Dalia Moore, Lucía Ruiz-Roca, Oscar Blanco, Diego Alonso-López, Javier De Las Rivas, Keenan Hartert, Romain Duval, David Klinkebiel, Martin B
CREBBP is targeted by inactivating mutations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we provide evidence from transgenic mouse models that Crebbp deletion results in deficits in B-cell development and can cooperate with Bcl2 over-expression to promote B-cell lymphoma. Through tra...
Aorta macrophage inflammatory and epigenetic changes in a murine model of obstructive sleep apnea: Potential role of CD36.
Cortese R. et al.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 8-10% of the population, is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), and causally associates with cardiovascular morbidities. In CIH-exposed mice, closely mimicking the chronicity of human OSA, increased accumulation and proliferation of pro-inflammatory metabolic M1...
Intestinal NCoR1, a regulator of epithelial cell maturation, controls neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
Chen S. et al.
Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SNH) and the onset of bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus result in part from delayed expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and the inability to metabolize bilirubin. Although there is a good understanding of the early events after birth that lead to the rapi...
BRD4 localization to lineage-specific enhancers is associated with a distinct transcription factor repertoire
Najafova Z. et al.
Proper temporal epigenetic regulation of gene expression is essential for cell fate determination and tissue development. The Bromodomain-containing Protein-4 (BRD4) was previously shown to control the transcription of defined subsets of genes in various cell systems. In this study we examined the role of BRD4 in pr...
CTCF modulates Estrogen Receptor function through specific chromatin and nuclear matrix interactions
Fiorito E. et al.
Enhancer regions and transcription start sites of estrogen-target regulated genes are connected by means of Estrogen Receptor long-range chromatin interactions. Yet, the complete molecular mechanisms controlling the transcriptional output of engaged enhancers and subsequent activation of coding genes remain elusive....
PionX sites mark the X chromosome for dosage compensation
Villa R et al.
The rules defining which small fraction of related DNA sequences can be selectively bound by a transcription factor are poorly understood. One of the most challenging tasks in DNA recognition is posed by dosage compensation systems that require the distinction between sex chromosomes and autosomes. In Drosophila mel...
reChIP-seq reveals widespread bivalency of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in CD4(+) memory T cells
Kinkley S et al.
The combinatorial action of co-localizing chromatin modifications and regulators determines chromatin structure and function. However, identifying co-localizing chromatin features in a high-throughput manner remains a technical challenge. Here we describe a novel reChIP-seq approach and tailored bioinformatic analys...
Deletion of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 From Mouse Intestine Causes Loss of Stem Cells
Koppens MA et al.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates differentiation by contributing to repression of gene expression and thereby stabilizing the fate of stem cells and their progeny. PRC2 helps to maintain adult stem cell populations, but little is known about its functions in intestinal stem ...
Impairment of DNA Methylation Maintenance Is the Main Cause of Global Demethylation in Naive Embryonic Stem Cells
von Meyenn F et al.
Global demethylation is part of a conserved program of epigenetic reprogramming to naive pluripotency. The transition from primed hypermethylated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to naive hypomethylated ones (serum-to-2i) is a valuable model system for epigenetic reprogramming. We present a mathematical model, which accu...