Bieluszewski T. et al.
Nucleosomal acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) is an essential transcriptional coactivator in eukaryotes, but remains poorly characterized in plants. Here, we describe Arabidopsis homologs of the NuA4 scaffold proteins Enhancer of Polycomb-Like 1 (AtEPL1) and Esa1-Associated Factor 1 (AtEAF1). Loss of AtEAF1 results in inhibition of growth and chloroplast development. These effects are stronger in the Atepl1 mutant and are further enhanced by loss of Golden2-Like (GLK) transcription factors, suggesting that NuA4 activates nuclear plastid genes alongside GLK. We demonstrate that AtEPL1 is necessary for nucleosomal acetylation of histones H4 and H2A.Z by NuA4 in vitro. These chromatin marks are diminished genome-wide in Atepl1, while another active chromatin mark, H3K9 acetylation (H3K9ac), is locally enhanced. Expression of many chloroplast-related genes depends on NuA4, as they are downregulated with loss of H4ac and H2A.Zac. Finally, we demonstrate that NuA4 promotes H2A.Z deposition and by doing so prevents spurious activation of stress response genes.
Microplex Library Preparation kit
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