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Enhancer decommissioning by Snail1-induced competitive displacement of TCF7L2 and down-regulation of transcriptional activators results in EPHB2 silencing
Schnappauf O et al.
Transcriptional silencing is a major cause for the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, however, the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. The EPHB2 gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that controls epithelial cell migration and allocation in intestinal crypts. Through its ability to restrict cell...
cChIP-seq: a robust small-scale method for investigation of histone modifications
Valensisi C et al.
ChIP-seq is highly utilized for mapping histone modifications that are informative about gene regulation and genome annotations. For example, applying ChIP-seq to histone modifications such as H3K4me1 has facilitated generating epigenomic maps of putative enhancers. This powerful technology, however, i...
C/EBPα Activates Pre-existing and De Novo Macrophage Enhancers during Induced Pre-B Cell Transdifferentiation and Myelopoiesis
van Oevelen C, Collombet S, Vicent G, Hoogenkamp M, Lepoivre C, Badeaux A, Bussmann L, Sardina JL, Thieffry D, Beato M, Shi Y, Bonifer C, Graf T
C/EBPα activates two classes of prospective myeloid enhancers in B cells
Pre-existing enhancers are bound by PU.1 and become hyper-activated by C/EBPα
C/EBPα acts as a pioneer factor with delayed kinetics on de novo enhancers
The two types of enhancers direct myeloid cell fat...
SNAIL1 combines competitive displacement of ASCL2 and epigenetic mechanisms to rapidly silence the EPHB3 tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer.
Rönsch K, Jägle S, Rose K, Seidl M, Baumgartner F, Freihen V, Yousaf A, Metzger E, Lassmann S, Schüle R, Zeiser R, Michoel T, Hecht A
EPHB3 is a critical cellular guidance factor in the intestinal epithelium and an important tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC) whose expression is frequently lost at the adenoma-carcinoma transition when tumor cells become invasive. The molecular mechanisms underlying EPHB3 silencing are incompletely underst...
Interrogation of allelic chromatin states in human cells by high-density ChIP-genotyping.
Light N, Adoue V, Ge B, Chen SH, Kwan T, Pastinen T
Allele-specific (AS) assessment of chromatin has the potential to elucidate specific cis-regulatory mechanisms, which are predicted to underlie the majority of the known genetic associations to complex disease. However, development of chromatin landscapes at allelic resolution has been challenging since sites of var...
Nuclear ARRB1 induces pseudohypoxia and cellular metabolism reprogramming in prostate cancer
Zecchini V, Madhu B, Russell R, Pértega-Gomes N, Warren A, Gaude E, Borlido J, Stark R, Ireland-Zecchini H, Rao R, Scott H, Boren J, Massie C, Asim M, Brindle K, Griffiths J, Frezza C, Neal DE, Mills IG
Tumour cells sustain their high proliferation rate through metabolic reprogramming, whereby cellular metabolism shifts from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, even under normal oxygen levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A) is a major regulator of this process, but its activation under normoxic con...
A novel microscopy-based high-throughput screening method to identify proteins that regulate global histone modification levels.
Baas R, Lelieveld D, van Teeffelen H, Lijnzaad P, Castelijns B, van Schaik FM, Vermeulen M, Egan DA, Timmers HT, de Graaf P
Posttranslational modifications of histones play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin structure in eukaryotes. The balance between chromatin factors depositing (writers) and removing (erasers) histone marks regulates the steady-state levels of chromatin modifications. Here we describe...
An In-Depth Characterization of the Major Psoriasis Susceptibility Locus Identifies Candidate Susceptibility Alleles within an HLA-C Enhancer Element.
Clop A, Bertoni A, Spain SL, Simpson MA, Pullabhatla V, Tonda R, Hundhausen C, Di Meglio P, De Jong P, Hayday AC, Nestle FO, Barker JN, Bell RJ, Capon F, Trembath RC
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder that is inherited as a complex genetic trait. Although genome-wide association scans (GWAS) have identified 36 disease susceptibility regions, more than 50% of the genetic variance can be attributed to a single Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) locus, known as PSORS...
Disease-Related Growth Factor and Embryonic Signaling Pathways Modulate an Enhancer of TCF21 Expression at the 6q23.2 Coronary Heart Disease Locus.
Miller CL, Anderson DR, Kundu RK, Raiesdana A, Nürnberg ST, Diaz R, Cheng K, Leeper NJ, Chen CH, Chang IS, Schadt EE, Hsiung CA, Assimes TL, Quertermous T
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have now identified 46 independent susceptibility loci for CHD, however, the biological and disease-relevant mechanisms for these associations remain elusive. Th...
Balancing of histone H3K4 methylation states by the Kdm5c/SMCX histone demethylase modulates promoter and enhancer function.
Outchkourov NS, Muiño JM, Kaufmann K, van Ijcken WF, Groot Koerkamp MJ, van Leenen D, de Graaf P, Holstege FC, Grosveld FG, Timmers HT
The functional organization of eukaryotic genomes correlates with specific patterns of histone methylations. Regulatory regions in genomes such as enhancers and promoters differ in their extent of methylation of histone H3 at lysine-4 (H3K4), but it is largely unknown how the different methylation states are specifi...
Characterization of the contradictory chromatin signatures at the 3' exons of zinc finger genes.
Blahnik KR, Dou L, Echipare L, Iyengar S, O'Geen H, Sanchez E, Zhao Y, Marra MA, Hirst M, Costello JF, Korf I, Farnham PJ
The H3K9me3 histone modification is often found at promoter regions, where it functions to repress transcription. However, we have previously shown that 3' exons of zinc finger genes (ZNFs) are marked by high levels of H3K9me3. We have now further investigated this unusual location for H3K9me3 in ZNF genes. Neither ...
Using ChIP-Seq Technology to Generate High-Resolution Profiles of Histone Modifications
O’Geen H, Echipare L, Farnham PJ
The dynamic modification of DNA and histones plays a key role in transcriptional regulation through - altering the packaging of DNA and modifying the nucleosome surface. These chromatin states, also referred to as the epigenome, are distinctive for different tissues, developmental stages, and disease states and can ...