Dos Santos JC, Barroso de Figueiredo AM, Teodoro Silva MV, Cirovic B, de Bree LCJ, Damen MSMA, Moorlag SJCFM, Gomes RS, Helsen MM, Oosting M, Keating ST, Schlitzer A, Netea MG, Ribeiro-Dias F, Joosten LAB
American tegumentary leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by Leishmania protozoans. Innate immune cells undergo long-term functional reprogramming in response to infection or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination via a process called trained immunity, conferring non-specific protection from secondary infections. Here, we demonstrate that monocytes trained with the fungal cell wall component β-glucan confer enhanced protection against infections caused by Leishmania braziliensis through the enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Mechanistically, this augmented immunological response is dependent on increased expression of interleukin 32 (IL-32). Studies performed using a humanized IL-32 transgenic mouse highlight the clinical implications of these findings in vivo. This study represents a definitive characterization of the role of IL-32γ in the trained phenotype induced by β-glucan or BCG, the results of which improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing trained immunity and Leishmania infection control.