Giaimo B.D. et al.
Signaling pathways regulate gene expression programs via the modulation of the chromatin structure at different levels, such as by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone tails, the exchange of canonical histones with histone variants, and nucleosome eviction. Such regulation requires the binding of signal-sensitive transcription factors (TFs) that recruit chromatin-modifying enzymes at regulatory elements defined as enhancers. Understanding how signaling cascades regulate enhancer activity requires a comprehensive analysis of the binding of TFs, chromatin modifying enzymes, and the occupancy of specific histone marks and histone variants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays utilize highly specific antibodies to immunoprecipitate specific protein/DNA complexes. The subsequent analysis of the purified DNA allows for the identification the region occupied by the protein recognized by the antibody. This work describes a protocol to efficiently perform ChIP of histone proteins in a mature mouse T-cell line. The presented protocol allows for the performance of ChIP assays in a reasonable timeframe and with high reproducibility.