Rajarajacholan U.K. et al.
Epigenetic, transcriptional and signaling processes in the nucleolus regulate rRNA transcription and cell growth. We report here that the tumor suppressor ING1b binds rDNA, regulates rDNA chromatin modifications and affects nucleolar localization of mTOR to modulate rRNA levels. ING1 represses rDNA transcription by recruiting HDAC1 to rDNA loci, increasing its association with the NoRC complex and deacetylating the histone H3K9 and H3K27 marks of active transcription. Loss of ING1 enhances nucleolar localization of phospho-mTOR and its association with Raptor and GβL, even during rapamycin treatment. ING1 inhibits rDNA transcription by inhibiting UBF activity and its interaction with mTOR. Regulation of rDNA heterochromatin and rRNA synthesis by ING1 is also apparent during normal cell growth and during cell stress. Moreover, this function was also important during PMA induced differentiation of THP1 cells, since knocking down ING1 affected the process by inhibiting rRNA transcriptional repression. These observations show that ING1 regulates the nucleolar epigenome and rDNA transcription suggesting that regulation of protein synthesis might serve as the basis for ING1 function as a type II tumor suppressor.