Ghanbarian H et al.
Dnmt2/Trdmt1 is a methyltransferase, which has been shown to methylate tRNAs. Deficient mutants were reported to exhibit various, seemingly unrelated, defects in development and RNA-mediated epigenetic heredity. Here we report a role in a distinct developmental regulation effected by a noncoding RNA. We show that Dnmt2-deficiency in mice results in cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic measurements revealed that cardiac function is preserved notwithstanding the increased dimensions of the organ due to cardiomyocyte enlargement. Mechanistically, activation of the P-TEFb complex, a critical step for cardiac growth, results from increased dissociation of the negatively regulating Rn7sk non-coding RNA component in Dnmt2-deficient cells. Our data suggest that Dnmt2 plays an unexpected role for regulation of cardiac growth by modulating activity of the P-TEFb complex.