Jurida L, Soelch J, Bartkuhn M, Handschick K, Müller H, Newel D, Weber A, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Schneider H, Bhuju S, Saul VV, Schmitz ML, Kracht M
The inflammatory gene response requires activation of the protein kinase TAK1, but it is currently unknown how TAK1-derived signals coordinate transcriptional programs in the genome. We determined the genome-wide binding of the TAK1-controlled NF-κB subunit p65 in relation to active enhancers and promoters of transcribed genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments. Out of 35,000 active enhancer regions, 410 H3K4me1-positive enhancers show interleukin 1 (IL-1)-induced H3K27ac and p65 binding. Inhibition of TAK1 or IKK2 or depletion of p65 blocked inducible enhancer activation and gene expression. As exemplified by the CXC chemokine cluster located on chromosome 4, the TAK1-p65 pathway also regulates the recruitment kinetics of the histone acetyltransferase CBP, of NF-κB p50, and of AP-1 transcription factors to both promoters and enhancers. This study provides a high-resolution view of epigenetic changes occurring during the IL-1 response and allows the genome-wide identification of a distinct class of inducible p65 NF-κB-dependent enhancers in epithelial cells.