Zhang W, Bai S, Liu D, Cline MA, Gilbert ER
Neuropeptide Y is an evolutionarily conserved neurotransmitter that stimulates food intake in higher vertebrate species and promotes adipogenesis in mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if NPY also enhances adipogenesis in birds, using chickens as a model. The stromal-vascular fraction of cells was isolated from the abdominal fat of 14day-old broiler chicks and effects of exogenous chicken NPY on proliferation and differentiation determined. Based on a thymidine analog incorporation assay and gene expression analysis, there was no effect of NPY on proliferation during the first 12hours post-treatment in cells that were induced to proliferate. However, there were effects of NPY treatment on proliferation and lipid accumulation during the first 6days post-induction of differentiation. Neuropeptide Y supplementation during induction of differentiation was associated with greater glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and staining for neutral lipids, indicative of augmented lipid accumulation. This was also accompanied by increased proliferation during differentiation, which was characterized by up-regulation of proliferation and preadipocyte marker mRNA, and a greater number of proliferating cells in groups that were treated with NPY. Additionally, NPY treatment was associated with increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and lipoprotein lipase during differentiation. In conclusion, these results suggest that NPY plays a role in promoting adipogenesis in chickens and that the mechanisms involve an increase in the synthesis of new preadipocytes and increased lipid synthesis and storage.