Englert NA, Luo G, Goldstein JA, Surapureddi S
The Mediator complex is vital for the transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes. Mediator binds to nuclear receptors at target response elements and recruits chromatin modifying enzymes and RNA Pol II. Here, we examine the involvement of Mediator subunit MED25 in the epigenetic regulation of human cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9)(2). MED25 is recruited to the CYP2C9 promoter through association with liver-enriched HNF4α, and we show that MED25 influences the H3K27 status of the HNF4α binding region. This region was enriched for the activating marker H3K27ac and histone acetyltransferase CREBBP after MED25 overexpression, but was trimethylated when MED25 expression was silenced. The epigenetic regulator Polycomb repressive complex (PRC2), which represses expression by methylating H3K27, plays an important role in target gene regulation. Silencing MED25 correlated with increased association of PRC2 with not only the promoter region chromatin but HNF4α itself. We confirmed the involvement of MED25 for fully functional preinitiation complex recruitment and transcriptional output in vitro. Formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE) revealed chromatin conformation changes that are reliant on MED25, indicating MED25 induced a permissive chromatin state that reflected increases in CYP2C9 mRNA. For the first time, we show evidence that a functionally relevant human gene is transcriptionally regulated by HNF4α via MED25 and PRC2. CYP2C9 is important for the metabolism of many exogenous chemicals including pharmaceutical drugs as well as endogenous substrates. Thus, MED25 is important for regulating the epigenetic landscape resulting in transcriptional activation of a highly inducible gene, CYP2C9.