Kuo PY, Leshchenko VV, Fazzari MJ, Perumal D, Gellen T, He T, Iqbal J, Baumgartner-Wennerholm S, Nygren L, Zhang F, Zhang W, Suh KS, Goy A, Yang DT, Chan WC, Kahl BS, Verma AK, Gascoyne RD, Kimby E, Sander B, Ye BH, Melnick AM, Parekh S
Sex determining region Y-box 11 (SOX11) expression is specific for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as compared with other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. However, the function and direct-binding targets of SOX11 in MCL are largely unknown. We used high-resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify the direct target genes of SOX11 in a genome-wide, unbiased manner and elucidate its functional significance. Pathway analysis identified WNT, PKA and TGF-beta signaling pathways as significantly enriched by SOX11-target genes. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and promoter reporter assays confirmed that SOX11 directly binds to individual genes and modulates their transcription activities in these pathways in MCL. Functional studies using RNA interference demonstrate that SOX11 directly regulates WNT in MCL. We analyzed SOX11 expression in three independent well-annotated tissue microarrays from the University of Wisconsin (UW), Karolinska Institute and British Columbia Cancer Agency. Our findings suggest that high SOX11 expression is associated with improved survival in a subset of MCL patients, particularly those treated with intensive chemotherapy. Transcriptional regulation of WNT and other biological pathways affected by SOX11-target genes may help explain the impact of SOX11 expression on patient outcomes.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.44.