Chen S, Seiler J, Santiago-Reichelt M, Felbel K, Grummt I, Voit R
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that connect metabolism and cellular homeostasis. Here we show that the nuclear Sirtuin SIRT7 targets PAF53, a subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Acetylation of PAF53 at lysine 373 by CBP and deacetylation by SIRT7 modulate the association of Pol I with DNA, hypoacetylation correlating with increased rDNA occupancy of Pol I and transcription activation. SIRT7 is released from nucleoli in response to different stress conditions, leading to hyperacetylation of PAF53 and decreased Pol I transcription. Nucleolar detention requires binding of SIRT7 to nascent pre-rRNA, linking the spatial distribution of SIRT7 and deacetylation of PAF53 to ongoing transcription. The results identify a nonhistone target of SIRT7 and uncover an RNA-mediated mechanism that adapts nucleolar transcription to stress signaling.