Menendez D, Nguyen TA, Freudenberg JM, Mathew VJ, Anderson CW, Jothi R, Resnick MA
The effects of diverse stresses on promoter selectivity and transcription regulation by the tumor suppressor p53 are poorly understood. We have taken a comprehensive approach to characterizing the human p53 network that includes p53 levels, binding, expression and chromatin changes under diverse stresses. Human osteosarcoma U2OS cells treated with anti-cancer drugs Doxorubicin (DXR) or Nutlin-3 (Nutlin) led to strikingly different p53 gene binding patterns based on chromatin immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing experiments. Although two contiguous RRRCWWGYYY decamers is the consensus binding motif, p53 can bind a single decamer and function in vivo. Although the number of sites bound by p53 was six times greater for Nutlin than DXR, expression changes induced by Nutlin were much less dramatic compared with DXR. Unexpectedly, the solvent dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) alone induced p53 binding to many sites common to DXR; however, this binding had no effect on target gene expression. Together, these data imply a two-stage mechanism for p53 transactivation where p53 binding only constitutes the first stage. Furthermore, both p53 binding and transactivation were associated with increased active histone modification histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation. We discovered 149 putative new p53 target genes including several that are relevant to tumor suppression, revealing potential new targets for cancer therapy and expanding our understanding of the p53 regulatory network.