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The Itaconate Pathway Is a Central Regulatory Node Linking Innate Immune Tolerance and Trained Immunity
Domínguez-Andrés Jorge, Novakovic Boris, Li Yang, Scicluna Brendon P., Gresnigt Mark S., Arts Rob J.W., Oosting Marije, Moorlag Simone J.C.F.M., Groh Laszlo A., Zwaag Jelle, Koch Rebecca M., ter Horst Rob, Joosten Leo A.B., Wijmenga Cisca, Michelucci Ales
Sepsis involves simultaneous hyperactivation of the immune system and immune paralysis, leading to both organ dysfunction and increased susceptibility to secondary infections. Acute activation of myeloid cells induced itaconate synthesis, which subsequently mediated innate immune tolerance in human monocytes. In con...
The histone demethylase Jarid1b mediates angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction by controlling the 3'UTR of soluble epoxide hydrolase.
Vasconez AE, Janetzko P, Oo JA, Pflüger-Müller B, Ratiu C, Gu L, Helin K, Geisslinger G, Fleming I, Schröder K, Fork C, Brandes RP, Leisegang MS
AIM: The histone demethylase Jarid1b limits gene expression by removing the active methyl mark from histone3 lysine4 at gene promoter regions. A vascular function of Jarid1b is unknown, but a vasoprotective function to inflammatory and hypertrophic stimuli, like angiotensin II (AngII) could be inferred. This hypothe...
Epigenetic regulation of brain region-specific microglia clearance activity.
Ayata P, Badimon A, Strasburger HJ, Duff MK, Montgomery SE, Loh YE, Ebert A, Pimenova AA, Ramirez BR, Chan AT, Sullivan JM, Purushothaman I, Scarpa JR, Goate AM, Busslinger M, Shen L, Losic B, Schaefer A
The rapid elimination of dying neurons and nonfunctional synapses in the brain is carried out by microglia, the resident myeloid cells of the brain. Here we show that microglia clearance activity in the adult brain is regionally regulated and depends on the rate of neuronal attrition. Cerebellar, but not striatal or...
Episomal HBV persistence within transcribed host nuclear chromatin compartments involves HBx.
Hensel KO, Cantner F, Bangert F, Wirth S, Postberg J
BACKGROUND: In hepatocyte nuclei, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes occur episomally as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). The HBV X protein (HBx) is required to initiate and maintain HBV replication. The functional nuclear localization of cccDNA and HBx remains unexplored. RESULTS: To identify virus-host genome...
Long noncoding RNA LISPR1 is required for S1P signaling and endothelial cell function.
Josipovic I, Pflüger B, Fork C, Vasconez AE, Oo JA, Hitzel J, Seredinski S, Gamen E, Heringdorf DMZ, Chen W, Looso M, Pullamsetti SS, Brandes RP, Leisegang MS
Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) is a potent signaling lipid. The effects of S1P are mediated by the five S1P receptors (S1PR). In the endothelium S1PR1 is the predominant receptor and thus S1PR1 abundance limits S1P signaling. Recently, lncRNAs were identified as a novel class of molecules regulating gene expression. ...
Metabolic Induction of Trained Immunity through the Mevalonate Pathway.
Bekkering S, Arts RJW, Novakovic B, Kourtzelis I, van der Heijden CDCC, Li Y, Popa CD, Ter Horst R, van Tuijl J, Netea-Maier RT, van de Veerdonk FL, Chavakis T, Joosten LAB, van der Meer JWM, Stunnenberg H, Riksen NP, Netea MG
Innate immune cells can develop long-term memory after stimulation by microbial products during infections or vaccinations. Here, we report that metabolic signals can induce trained immunity. Pharmacological and genetic experiments reveal that activation of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, but not the synthesis of...
BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity.
Arts RJW, Moorlag SJCFM, Novakovic B, Li Y, Wang SY, Oosting M, Kumar V, Xavier RJ, Wijmenga C, Joosten LAB, Reusken CBEM, Benn CS, Aaby P, Koopmans MP, Stunnenberg HG, van Crevel R, Netea MG
The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic repr...
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) silences genes responsible for neurodegeneration
von Schimmelmann M et al.
Normal brain function depends on the interaction between highly specialized neurons that operate within anatomically and functionally distinct brain regions. Neuronal specification is driven by transcriptional programs that are established during early neuronal development and remain in place in the adult brain. The...