Bansal N, Kadamb R, Mittal S, Vig L, Sharma R, Dwarakanath BS, Saluja D
Master regulator protein p53, popularly known as the "guardian of genome" is the hub for regulation of diverse cellular pathways. Depending on the cell type and severity of DNA damage, p53 protein mediates cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, besides activating DNA repair, which is apparently achieved by regulation of its target genes, as well as direct interaction with other proteins. p53 is known to repress target genes via multiple mechanisms one of which is via recruitment of chromatin remodelling Sin3/HDAC1/2 complex. Sin3 proteins (Sin3A and Sin3B) regulate gene expression at the chromatin-level by serving as an anchor onto which the core Sin3/HDAC complex is assembled. The Sin3/HDAC co-repressor complex can be recruited by a large number of DNA-binding transcription factors. Sin3A has been closely linked to p53 while Sin3B is considered to be a close associate of E2Fs. The theme of this study was to establish the role of Sin3B in p53-mediated gene repression. We demonstrate a direct protein-protein interaction between human p53 and Sin3B (hSin3B). Amino acids 1-399 of hSin3B protein are involved in its interaction with N-terminal region (amino acids 1-108) of p53. Genotoxic stress induced by Adriamycin treatment increases the levels of hSin3B that is recruited to the promoters of p53-target genes (HSPA8, MAD1 and CRYZ). More importantly recruitment of hSin3B and repression of the three p53-target promoters upon Adriamycin treatment were observed only in p53(+/+) cell lines. Additionally an increased tri-methylation of the H3K9 residue at the promoters of HSPA8 and CRYZ was also observed following Adriamycin treatment. The present study highlights for the first time the essential role of Sin3B as an important associate of p53 in mediating the cellular responses to stress and in the transcriptional repression of genes encoding for heat shock proteins or proteins involved in regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.