Lowdon RF, Zhang B, Bilenky M, Mauro T, Li D, Gascard P, Sigaroudinia M, Farnham PJ, Bastian BC, Tlsty TD, Marra MA, Hirst M, Costello JF, Wang T, Cheng JB
Developmental history shapes the epigenome and biological function of differentiated cells. Epigenomic patterns have been broadly attributed to the three embryonic germ layers. Here we investigate how developmental origin influences epigenomes. We compare key epigenomes of cell types derived from surface ectoderm (SE), including keratinocytes and breast luminal and myoepithelial cells, against neural crest-derived melanocytes and mesoderm-derived dermal fibroblasts, to identify SE differentially methylated regions (SE-DMRs). DNA methylomes of neonatal keratinocytes share many more DMRs with adult breast luminal and myoepithelial cells than with melanocytes and fibroblasts from the same neonatal skin. This suggests that SE origin contributes to DNA methylation patterning, while shared skin tissue environment has limited effect on epidermal keratinocytes. Hypomethylated SE-DMRs are in proximity to genes with SE relevant functions. They are also enriched for enhancer- and promoter-associated histone modifications in SE-derived cells, and for binding motifs of transcription factors important in keratinocyte and mammary gland biology. Thus, epigenomic analysis of cell types with common developmental origin reveals an epigenetic signature that underlies a shared gene regulatory network.