Gomez-Duran A, Ballestar E, Carvajal-Gonzalez JM, Marlowe JL, Puga A, Esteller M, Fernandez-Salguero PM
Latent TGFbeta-binding protein 1 (LTBP-1) is a key regulator of TGFbeta targeting and activation in the extracellular matrix. LTBP-1 is recognized as a major docking molecule to localize, and possibly to activate, TGFbeta in the extracellular matrix. Despite this relevant function, the molecular mechanisms regulating Ltbp-1 transcription remain largely unknown. Previous results from our laboratory revealed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) lacking dioxin receptor (AhR) had increased Ltbp-1 mRNA expression and elevated TGFbeta activity, suggesting that AhR repressed Ltbp-1 transcription. Here, we have cloned the mouse Ltbp-1 gene promoter and analysed its mechanism of transcriptional repression by AhR. Reporter gene assays, AhR over-expression and site-directed mutagenesis showed that basal Ltbp-1 transcription is AhR-dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that AhR regulates Ltbp-1 transcription by a mechanism involving recruitment of co-activators such as CREB1 and co-repressors such as HDAC2 to the Ltbp-1 promoter. In AhR-expressing (AhR+/+) MEF cells, the recruitment of HDAC1, 2 and 4 correlated with decreased K8H4 acetylation and impaired binding of pCREB(Ser133) to the Ltbp-1 promoter, likely maintaining a constitutive repressed state. AhR-/- MEF cells had the opposite pattern of HDACs and pCREB1(Ser133) binding to Ltbp-1 promoter, and therefore, over-expressed Ltbp-1 mRNA. In agreement, siRNA for HDAC2 increased Ltbp-1 expression and K8H4 acetylation in AhR+/+ but not in AhR-/- MEF cells. We suggest that HDAC2 binding keeps Ltbp-1 promoter repressed in AhR+/+ MEF cells, whereas in AhR-null MEF cells the absence of HDAC2 and the binding of pCREB(Ser133) allow Ltbp-1 transcription. Thus, epigenetics can contribute to constitutive Ltbp-1 repression by a mechanism requiring AhR activity.