Rubinow KB, Wall VZ, Nelson J, Mar D, Bomsztyk K, Askari B, Lai MA, Smith KD, Han MS, Vivekanandan-Giri A, Pennathur S, Albert CJ, Ford DA, Davis RJ, Bornfeldt KE
The enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ in insulin target tissues, such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and plays an important role in β-oxidation in these tissues. In macrophages, however, ACSL1 mediates inflammatory effects without significant effects on β-oxidation. Thus, the function of ACSL1 varies in different tissues. We therefore investigated the signals and signal transduction pathways resulting in ACSL1 induction in macrophages as well as the consequences of ACSL1 deficiency for phospholipid turnover in LPS-activated macrophages. LPS, Gram-negative bacteria, IFN-γ, and TNFα all induce ACSL1 expression in macrophages, whereas PPAR agonists do not. LPS-induced ACSL1 expression is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its adaptor protein TRIF (Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1) but does not require the MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) arm of TLR4 signaling; nor does it require STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) for maximal induction. Furthermore, ACSL1 deletion attenuates phospholipid turnover in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Thus, the regulation and biological function of ACSL1 in macrophages differ markedly from that in insulin target tissues. These results suggest that ACSL1 may have an important role in the innate immune response. Further, these findings illustrate an interesting paradigm in which the same enzyme, ACSL1, confers distinct biological effects in different cell types, and these disparate functions are paralleled by differences in the pathways that regulate its expression.