The chromosome-level genome of Gypsophila paniculata reveals themolecular mechanism of floral development and ethylene insensitivity

Fan Li et al.

Gypsophila paniculata, belonging to the Caryophyllaceae of the Caryophyllales, is one of the worldwide famous cut flowers. It is commonly used as dried flowers, whereas the underlying mechanism of flower senescence has not yet been addressed. Here, we present a chromosome-scale genome assembly for G. paniculata with a total size of 749.58 Mb. Whole-genome duplication signatures unveil two major duplication events in its evolutionary history, an ancient one occurring before the divergence of Caryophyllaceae and a more recent one shared with Dianthus caryophyllus. The integrative analyses combining genomic and transcriptomic data reveal the mechanisms regulating floral development and ethylene response of G. paniculata. The reduction of AGAMOUS expression probably caused by sequence polymorphism and the mutation in miR172 binding site of PETALOSA are associated with the double flower formation in G. paniculata. The low expression of ERS (ETHYLENE RESPONSE SENSOR) and the reduction of downstream ERF (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR) gene copy number collectively lead to the ethylene insensitivity of G. paniculata, affecting flower senescence and making it capable of making dried flowers. This study provides a cornerstone for understanding the underlying principles governing floral development and flower senescence, which could accelerate the molecular breeding of the Caryophyllaceae species.


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August, 2022


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