Liu Hongbing et al.
Our studies demonstrated the critical role of Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the regulation of nephrogenesis. To better understand the key pathways regulated by HDAC1/2 in early nephrogenesis, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of Hdac1/2 on isolated nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) from mouse E16.5 kidneys. Our analysis revealed that 11802 (40.4\%) of Hdac1 peaks overlap with Hdac2 peaks, further demonstrates the redundant role of Hdac1 and Hdac2 during nephrogenesis. Common Hdac1/2 peaks are densely concentrated close to the transcriptional start site (TSS). GREAT Gene Ontology analysis of overlapping Hdac1/2 peaks reveals that Hdac1/2 are associated with metanephric nephron morphogenesis, chromatin assembly or disassembly, as well as other DNA checkpoints. Pathway analysis shows that negative regulation of Wnt signaling pathway is one of Hdac1/2's most significant function in NPCs. Known motif analysis indicated that Hdac1 is enriched in motifs for Six2, Hox family, and Tcf family members, which are essential for self-renewal and differentiation of nephron progenitors. Interestingly, we found the enrichment of HDAC1/2 at the enhancer and promoter regions of actively transcribed genes, especially those concerned with NPC self-renewal. HDAC1/2 simultaneously activate or repress the expression of different genes to maintain the cellular state of nephron progenitors. We used the Integrative Genomics Viewer to visualize these target genes associated with each function and found that Hdac1/2 co-bound to the enhancers or/and promoters of genes associated with nephron morphogenesis, differentiation, and cell cycle control. Taken together, our ChIP-Seq analysis demonstrates that Hdac1/2 directly regulate the molecular cascades essential for nephrogenesis.