Jeljeli M, Riccio LGC, Doridot L, Chêne C, Nicco C, Chouzenoux S, Deletang Q, Allanore Y, Kavian N, Batteux F
Chronic inflammation and fibrosis can result from inappropriately activated immune responses that are mediated by macrophages. Macrophages can acquire memory-like characteristics in response to antigen exposure. Here, we show the effect of BCG or low-dose LPS stimulation on macrophage phenotype, cytokine production, chromatin and metabolic modifications. Low-dose LPS training alleviates fibrosis and inflammation in a mouse model of systemic sclerosis (SSc), whereas BCG-training exacerbates disease in this model. Adoptive transfer of low-dose LPS-trained or BCG-trained macrophages also has beneficial or harmful effects, respectively. Furthermore, coculture with low-dose LPS trained macrophages reduces the fibro-inflammatory profile of fibroblasts from mice and patients with SSc, indicating that trained immunity might be a phenomenon that can be targeted to treat SSc and other autoimmune and inflammatory fibrotic disorders.