Herrera-Uribe, Juber and Liu, Haibo and Byrne, Kristen A and Bond, Zahra Fand Loving, Crystal L and Tuggle, Christopher K
Changes in chromatin structure, especially in histone modifications (HMs), linked with chromatin accessibility for transcription machinery, are considered to play significant roles in transcriptional regulation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) are important immune cells for protection against pulmonary pathogens, and must readily respond to bacteria and viruses that enter the airways. Mechanism(s) controlling AM innate response to different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are not well defined in pigs. By combining RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) with chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) for four histone marks (H3K4me3, H3K4me1, H3K27ac and H3K27me3), we established a chromatin state map for AM stimulated with two different PAMPs, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Poly(I:C), and investigated the potential effect of identified histone modifications on transcription factor binding motif (TFBM) prediction and RNA abundance changes in these AM. The integrative analysis suggests that the differential gene expression between non-stimulated and stimulated AM is significantly associated with changes in the H3K27ac level at active regulatory regions. Although global changes in chromatin states were minor after stimulation, we detected chromatin state changes for differentially expressed genes involved in the TLR4, TLR3 and RIG-I signaling pathways. We found that regions marked by H3K27ac genome-wide were enriched for TFBMs of TF that are involved in the inflammatory response. We further documented that TF whose expression was induced by these stimuli had TFBMs enriched within H3K27ac-marked regions whose chromatin state changed by these same stimuli. Given that the dramatic transcriptomic changes and minor chromatin state changes occurred in response to both stimuli, we conclude that regulatory elements (i.e. active promoters) that contain transcription factor binding motifs were already active/poised in AM for immediate inflammatory response to PAMPs. In summary, our data provides the first chromatin state map of porcine AM in response to bacterial and viral PAMPs, contributing to the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) project, and demonstrates the role of HMs, especially H3K27ac, in regulating transcription in AM in response to LPS and Poly(I:C).