Kochmanski JJ, Marchlewicz EH, Cavalcante RG, Perera BPU, Sartor MA, Dolinoy DC
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic machinery plays an important role in genomic imprinting, a developmental process that establishes parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic gene expression. Although a number of studies have investigated the role of 5-methylcytosine in imprinting control, the contribution of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) to this epigenetic phenomenon remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: Using matched mouse blood samples (from mice at 2, 4, and 10 months of age), our objective was to examine the effects of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure (50 μg/kg diet) on longitudinal 5-hmC patterns at imprinted regions. We also aimed to test the hypothesis that 5-hmC would show defined patterns at imprinted genes that persist across the life course. METHODS: Genome-wide 5-hmC levels were measured using hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (HMeDIP-seq). Modeling of differential hydroxymethylation by BPA exposure was performed using a pipeline of bioinformatics tools, including the R package. RESULTS: Based on BPA exposure, we identified 5,950 differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DHMRs), including 12 DHMRs that were annotated to murine imprinted genes—, , , , , , , , , , and . When visualized, these imprinted gene DHMRs showed clear, consistent patterns of differential 5-hmC by developmental BPA exposure that persisted throughout adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: These data show long-term establishment of 5-hmC marks at imprinted loci during development. Further, the effect of perinatal BPA exposure on 5-hmC at specific imprinted loci indicates that developmental exposure to environmental toxicants may alter long-term imprinted gene regulation via an epigenetic mechanism. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3441.