Yang AY, Lee JH, Shu L, Zhang C, Su ZY, Lu Y, Huang MT, Ramirez C, Pung D, Huang Y, Verzi M, Hart RP, Kong AN
AIMS: Ultraviolet irradiation and carcinogens have been reported to induce epigenetic alterations, which potentially contribute to the development of skin cancer. We aimed to study the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of skin cancers induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-1,3-acetate (TPA). MAIN METHODS: Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by next-generation sequencing was utilized to ascertain the DNA methylation profiles in the following common mouse skin cancer models: SKH-1 mice treated with UVB irradiation and CD-1 mice treated with DMBA/TPA. Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was utilized to analyze the data and to identify gene interactions among the different pathways. KEY FINDINGS: 6003 genes in the UVB group and 5424 genes in the DMBA/TPA group exhibited a greater than 2-fold change in CpG methylation as mapped by the IPA software. The top canonical pathways identified by IPA after the two treatments were ranked were pathways related to cancer development, cAMP-mediated signaling, G protein-coupled receptor signaling and PTEN signaling associated with UVB treatment, whereas protein kinase A signaling and xenobiotic metabolism signaling were associated with DMBA/TPA treatment. In addition, the mapped IL-6-related inflammatory pathways displayed alterations in the methylation profiles of inflammation-related genes linked to UVB treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: Genes with altered methylation were ranked in the UVB and DMBA/TPA models, and the molecular interaction networks of those genes were identified by the IPA software. The genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of skin cancers induced by UV irradiation or by DMBA/TPA will be useful for future studies on epigenetic gene regulation in skin carcinogenesis.