Diagenode

Chromatin profiling reveals TFAP4 as a critical transcriptional regulator of bovine satellite cell differentiation


Pengcheng Lyu et al.

Background

Satellite cells are myogenic precursor cells in adult skeletal muscle and play a crucial role in skeletal muscle regeneration, maintenance, and growth. Like embryonic myoblasts, satellite cells have the ability to proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form multinucleated myofibers. In this study, we aimed to identify additional transcription factors that control gene expression during bovine satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

Results

Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing, we identified 56,973 and 54,470 genomic regions marked with both the histone modifications H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, which were considered active enhancers, and 50,956 and 59,174 genomic regions marked with H3K27me3, which were considered repressed enhancers, in proliferating and differentiating bovine satellite cells, respectively. In addition, we identified 1,216 and 1,171 super-enhancers in proliferating and differentiating bovine satellite cells, respectively. Analyzing these enhancers showed that in proliferating bovine satellite cells, active enhancers were associated with genes stimulating cell proliferation or inhibiting myoblast differentiation whereas repressed enhancers were associated with genes essential for myoblast differentiation, and that in differentiating satellite cells, active enhancers were associated with genes essential for myoblast differentiation or muscle contraction whereas repressed enhancers were associated with genes stimulating cell proliferation or inhibiting myoblast differentiation. Active enhancers in proliferating bovine satellite cells were enriched with binding sites for many transcription factors such as MYF5 and the AP-1 family transcription factors; active enhancers in differentiating bovine satellite cells were enriched with binding sites for many transcription factors such as MYOG and TFAP4; and repressed enhancers in both proliferating and differentiating bovine satellite cells were enriched with binding sites for NF-kB, ZEB-1, and several other transcription factors. The role of TFAP4 in satellite cell or myoblast differentiation was previously unknown, and through gene knockdown and overexpression, we experimentally validated a critical role for TFAP4 in the differentiation and fusion of bovine satellite cells into myofibers.

Conclusions

Satellite cell proliferation and differentiation are controlled by many transcription factors such as AP-1, TFAP4, NF-kB, and ZEB-1 whose roles in these processes were previously unknown in addition to those transcription factors such as MYF5 and MYOG whose roles in these processes are widely known.

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iDeal ChIP-seq Kit for Histones

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Published
March, 2024

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Products used in this publication

  • ChIP kit icon
    C01010051
    iDeal ChIP-seq kit for Histones
  • Histone-Deacetylase-polyclonal-antibody-diagenode
    C15210016
    H3K27ac monoclonal antibody
  • ChIP-seq Grade
    C15410037-50
    H3K4me1 polyclonal antibody
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    C15200181-50
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