Han L, Zi X, Garmire LX, Wu Y, Weissman SM, Pan X, Fan R
Despite the recent advance of single-cell gene expression analyses, co-measurement of both genomic and transcriptional signatures at the single-cell level has not been realized. However such analysis is necessary in order to accurately delineate how genetic information is transcribed, expressed, and regulated to give rise to an enormously diverse range of cell phenotypes. Here we report on a microfluidics-facilitated approach that allows for controlled separation of cytoplasmic and nuclear contents of a single cell followed by on-chip amplification of genomic DNA and cytoplasmic mRNA. When coupled with off-chip polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing, a panel of genes and transcripts from the same single cell can be co-detected and sequenced. This platform is potentially an enabling tool to permit multiple genomic measurements performed on the same single cells and opens new opportunities to tackle a range of fundamental biology questions including non-genetic cell-to-cell variability, epigenetic regulation, and stem cell fate control. It also helps address clinical challenges such as diagnosing intra-tumor heterogeneity and dissecting complex cellular immune responses.