Chia CY, Kumari U, Casey PJ
BACKGROUND: Recent studies on the involvement of the G12 family of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα12 and Gα13, the products of the GNA12 and GNA13 genes, respectively) in oncogenic pathways have uncovered a link between G12 signaling and cancer progression. However, despite a well characterized role of Rho GTPases, the potential role of secreted factors in the capacity of G12 signaling to promote invasion of cancer cells is just beginning to be addressed. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A breast cancer cell lines were employed as a model system to explore the involvement of secreted factors in G12-stimulated cell invasion. Factors secreted by cells expressing dominant-active Gα12 were identified by protein array, and their involvement in breast cancer cell invasion was assessed through both RNAi-mediated knockdown and antibody neutralization approaches. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter elements of the identified factors suggested NF-κB elements played a role in their enhanced expression, which was tested by chromatin immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: We found that signaling through the Gα12 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A breast cancer cell lines enhances expression of interleukins (IL)-6 and -8, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and that these secreted factors play a role in G12-stimulated cell invasion. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of these secreted factors was found to be facilitated by the activation of their corresponding promoters, where NF-κB seems to be one of the major regulators. Inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8, or MMP-2 activity significantly decreased Gα12-mediated cell invasion. CONCLUSIONS: These studies confirm and extend findings that secreted factors contribute to the oncogenic potential of G12 signaling, and suggest potential therapeutic targets to control this process.