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MLL2 conveys transcription-independent H3K4 trimethylation in oocytes
Hanna C.W. et al.
Histone 3 K4 trimethylation (depositing H3K4me3 marks) is typically associated with active promoters yet paradoxically occurs at untranscribed domains. Research to delineate the mechanisms of targeting H3K4 methyltransferases is ongoing. The oocyte provides an attractive system to investigate these mechanisms, becau...
An endosiRNA-Based Repression Mechanism Counteracts Transposon Activation during Global DNA Demethylation in Embryonic Stem Cells
Berrens R.V. et al.
Erasure of DNA methylation and repressive chromatin marks in the mammalian germline leads to risk of transcriptional activation of transposable elements (TEs). Here, we used mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to identify an endosiRNA-based mechanism involved in suppression of TE transcription. In ESCs with DNA demeth...
Epigenome profiling and editing of neocortical progenitor cells during development
Albert M. et al.
The generation of neocortical neurons from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is primarily controlled by transcription factors binding to DNA in the context of chromatin. To understand the complex layer of regulation that orchestrates different NPC types from the same DNA sequence, epigenome maps with cell type resoluti...
Transcriptome sequencing in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies fusion genes associated with distinct DNA methylation profiles
Marincevic-Zuniga Y. et al.
Structural chromosomal rearrangements that lead to expressed fusion genes are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 134 primary ALL patient samples to comprehensively detect fusion transcripts.
We combined fusion gene detec...
Dynamics of RNA Polymerase II Pausing and Bivalent Histone H3 Methylation during Neuronal Differentiation in Brain Development
Liu J. et al.
During cellular differentiation, genes important for differentiation are expected to be silent in stem/progenitor cells yet can be readily activated. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing and bivalent chromatin marks are two paradigms suited for establishing such a poised state of gene expression; however, their specif...
Multivalent binding of PWWP2A to H2A.Z regulates mitosis and neural crest differentiation
Pünzeler S. et al.
Replacement of canonical histones with specialized histone variants promotes altering of chromatin structure and function. The essential histone variant H2A.Z affects various DNA-based processes via poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we determine the comprehensive interactome of H2A.Z and identify PWWP2A as a novel...
Krox20 hindbrain regulation incorporates multiple modes of cooperation between cis-acting elements
Thierion E. et al.
Developmental genes can harbour multiple transcriptional enhancers that act simultaneously or in succession to achieve robust and precise spatiotemporal expression. However, the mechanisms underlying cooperation between cis-acting elements are poorly documented, notably in vertebrates. The mouse gene Krox20 encodes ...
Ectopic application of the repressive histone modification H3K9me2 establishes post-zygotic reproductive isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana
Jiang H. et al.
Hybrid seed lethality as a consequence of interspecies or interploidy hybridizations is a major mechanism of reproductive isolation in plants. This mechanism is manifested in the endosperm, a dosage-sensitive tissue supporting embryo growth. Deregulated expression of imprinted genes such as ADMETOS (ADM) underpin th...
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-elicited effects on bile acid homeostasis: Alterations in biosynthesis, enterohepatic circulation, and microbial metabolism.
Fader K. et al.
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant which elicits hepatotoxicity through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Male C57BL/6 mice orally gavaged with TCDD (0.01-30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days exhibited bile duct proliferation and perichola...
CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Reveals That the Intron Is Not Essential for var2csa Gene Activation or Silencing in Plasmodium falciparum
Bryant J.M. et al.
Plasmodium falciparum relies on monoallelic expression of 1 of 60 var virulence genes for antigenic variation and host immune evasion. Each var gene contains a conserved intron which has been implicated in previous studies in both activation and repression of transcription via several epigenetic mechanisms, includin...
TIAM1 Antagonizes TAZ/YAP Both in the Destruction Complex in the Cytoplasm and in the Nucleus to Inhibit Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Diamantopoulou Z. et al.
Aberrant WNT signaling drives colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we identify TIAM1 as a critical antagonist of CRC progression through inhibiting TAZ and YAP, effectors of WNT signaling. We demonstrate that TIAM1 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus antagonizing TAZ/YAP by distinct mechanisms in the two compartmen...
The Drosophila speciation factor HMR localizes to genomic insulator sites
Gerland T.A. et al.
Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. ...
Nitric oxide modulates histone acetylation at stress genes by inhibition of histone deacetylases
Mengel A. et al.
Histone acetylation, which is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression, is controlled by the opposing action of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In animals, several HDACs are subjected to regulation by nitric oxide (NO), in plants however, it is unknown whether NO affects...
Deletion of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 From Mouse Intestine Causes Loss of Stem Cells
Koppens MA et al.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates differentiation by contributing to repression of gene expression and thereby stabilizing the fate of stem cells and their progeny. PRC2 helps to maintain adult stem cell populations, but little is known about its functions in intestinal stem ...
Impairment of DNA Methylation Maintenance Is the Main Cause of Global Demethylation in Naive Embryonic Stem Cells
von Meyenn F et al.
Global demethylation is part of a conserved program of epigenetic reprogramming to naive pluripotency. The transition from primed hypermethylated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to naive hypomethylated ones (serum-to-2i) is a valuable model system for epigenetic reprogramming. We present a mathematical model, which accu...
Pyruvate kinase isoform switching and hepatic metabolic reprogramming by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
Rance Nault, Kelly A. Fader, Mathew P. Kirby, Shaimaa Ahmed, Jason Matthews, Daniel Jones, Sophia Y. Lunt
The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) elicits dose-dependent hepatotoxicity that includes fat accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis that may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. To further investigate these effects, RNA-Seq data was integrated with computationally identified pu...