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TET2- and TDG-mediated changes are required for the acquisition of distinct histone modifications in divergent terminal differentiation of myeloid cells
Garcia-Gomez A. et al.
The plasticity of myeloid cells is illustrated by a diversity of functions including their role as effectors of innate immunity as macrophages (MACs) and bone remodelling as osteoclasts (OCs). TET2, a methylcytosine dioxygenase highly expressed in these cells and frequently mutated in myeloid leukemias, may be a key...
5-hydroxymethylcytosine accumulation in postmitotic neurons results in functional demethylation of expressed genes
Mellén M. et al.
5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) occurs at maximal levels in postmitotic neurons, where its accumulation is cell-specific and correlated with gene expression. Here we demonstrate that the distribution of 5hmC in CG and non-CG dinucleotides is distinct and that it reflects the binding specificity and genome occupancy o...
Epigenome profiling and editing of neocortical progenitor cells during development
Albert M. et al.
The generation of neocortical neurons from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is primarily controlled by transcription factors binding to DNA in the context of chromatin. To understand the complex layer of regulation that orchestrates different NPC types from the same DNA sequence, epigenome maps with cell type resoluti...
Viral driven epigenetic events alter the expression of cancer-related genes in Epstein-Barr-virus naturally infected Burkitt lymphoma cell lines
Hector Hernandez-Vargas, Henri Gruffat, Marie Pierre Cros, Audrey Diederichs, Cécilia Sirand, Romina C. Vargas-Ayala, Antonin Jay, Geoffroy Durand, Florence Le Calvez-Kelm, Zdenko Herceg, Evelyne Manet, Christopher P. Wild
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was identified as the first human virus to be associated with a human malignancy, Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL), a pediatric cancer endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The exact mechanism of how EBV contributes to the process of lymphomagenesis is not fully understood. Recent studies have highlig...
Vitamin C induces specific demethylation of H3K9me2 in mouse embryonic stem cells via Kdm3a/b
Kevin T. Ebata, Kathryn Mesh, Shichong Liu, Misha Bilenky, Alexander Fekete, Michael G. Acker, Martin Hirst, Benjamin A. Garcia and Miguel Ramalho-Santos
Histone methylation patterns regulate gene expression and are highly dynamic during development. The erasure of histone methylation is carried out by histone demethylase enzymes. We had previously shown that vitamin C enhances the activity of Tet enzymes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, leading to DNA...
A chronic low dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) restores cognitive function in old mice
Bilkei-Gorzo A. et al.
The balance between detrimental, pro-aging, often stochastic processes and counteracting homeostatic mechanisms largely determines the progression of aging. There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is part of the latter system because it modulates the physiological processes und...
PPARγ Links BMP2 and TGFβ1 Pathways in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Regulating Cell Proliferation and Glucose Metabolism
Laurent Calvier, Philippe Chouvarine, Ekaterina Legchenko, Nadine Hoffmann, Jonas Geldner, Paul Borchert, Danny Jonigk, Miklos M. Mozes, Georg Hansmann
BMP2 and TGFβ1 are functional antagonists of pathological remodeling in the arteries, heart, and lung; however, the mechanisms in VSMCs, and their disturbance in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), are unclear. We found a pro-proliferative TGFβ1-Stat3-FoxO1 axis in VSMCs, and PPARγ as in...
JMJD3 aids in reprogramming of bone marrow progenitor cells to hepatic phenotype through epigenetic activation of hepatic transcription factors
Veena Kochat, Zaffar Equbal, Prakash Baligar, Vikash Kumar, Madhulika Srivastava, Asok Mukhopadhyay
The strictly regulated unidirectional differentiation program in some somatic stem/progenitor cells has been found to be modified in the ectopic site (tissue) undergoing regeneration. In these cases, the lineage barrier is crossed by either heterotypic cell fusion or direct differentiation. Though studies have shown...
Chromatin Domain Organization of TCRb locus and its perturbation by ectopic CTCF binding
Rawat P. et al.
CTCF mediated chromatin interactions influence organization and function of mammalian genome in diverse ways. We analyzed the interactions amongst CTCF binding sites (CBS) at murine TCRb locus to discern the role of CTCF mediated interactions in regulation of transcription and VDJ recombination. 3C analysis revealed...
Genomic Characterization of Metformin Hepatic Response
Luizon M.R. et al.
Metformin is used as a first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prescribed for numerous other diseases. However, its mechanism of action in the liver has yet to be characterized in a systematic manner. To comprehensively identify genes and regulatory elements associated with metformin treatment, we carried o...
DNA demethylation of inflammasome-associated genes is enhanced in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes
Vento-Tormo R et al.
Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes in macrophages. They assemble after infection- or stress-associated stimuli, activating both caspase-1-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion and pyroptosis. Increased inflammasome activity resulting from gene mutations is related to monogenic autoinf...
Molecular mechanisms in H2O2-induced increase in AT1 receptor gene expression in cardiac fibroblasts: a role for endogenously generated Angiotensin II.
Anupama V et al.
The AT1 receptor (AT1R) mediates the manifold actions of Angiotensin II in the cardiovascular system. This study probed the molecular mechanisms that link altered redox status to AT1R expression in cardiac fibroblasts. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that H2O2 enhances AT1R mRNA and protein expression...
Epigenetic alterations of CYP19A1 gene in Cumulus cells and its relevance to infertility in endometriosis
Hosseini E et al.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epigenetic mechanisms responsible for the aberrant aromatase expression (CYP19A1) in Cumulus Cells (CCs) of infertile endometriosis patients.
Cumulus cells were obtained from 24 infertile patients with and without endometriosis who underwe...
Loss of the transcription factor Meis1 prevents sympathetic neurons target-field innervation and increases susceptibility to sudden cardiac death
Bouilloux F. et al.
Although cardio-vascular incidents and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the leading causes of premature death in the general population, the origins remain unidentified in many cases. Genome-wide association studies have identified Meis1 as a risk factor for SCD. We report that Meis1 inactivation in the mouse ne...
Desensitization and incomplete recovery of hepatic target genes after chronic thyroid hormone treatment and withdrawal in male adult mice
Kenji Ohba, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Ronny Lesmana,Xiao-Hui Liao, Paul Michael Yen
Here, we examined changes in hepatic gene expression and serum TH/thyrotropin (TSH) levels in adult male mice treated either with a single T3 (20 g/100 g body weight) injection (acute T3) or daily injections for 14 days (chronic T3) followed by 10 days withdrawal. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of repre...
Molecular basis and functional significance of Angiotensin II-induced increase in Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 gene expression in cardiac fibroblasts
George M et al.
Delineation of mechanisms underlying the regulation of fibrosis-related genes in the heart is an important clinical goal as cardiac fibrosis is a major cause of myocardial dysfunction. This study probed the regulation of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) gene expression and the regulatory links between Angiotensin ...
An Insulator Element Located at the Cyclin B1 Interacting Protein 1 Gene Locus Is Highly Conserved among Mammalian Species
Yoshida W, Tomikawa J, Inaki M, Kimura H, Onodera M, Hata K, Nakabayashi K
Insulators are cis-elements that control the direction of enhancer and silencer activities (enhancer-blocking) and protect genes from silencing by heterochromatinization (barrier activity). Understanding insulators is critical to elucidate gene regulatory mechanisms at chromosomal domain levels. Here, we focused on ...